Society and culture

Modes of delivery[edit]

Pharmaceutical manufacturers make amoxicillin in trihydrate form, for oral use available as capsules, regular, chewable and dispersible tablets, syrup and pediatric suspension for oral use, and as the sodium salt for intravenous administration. Amoxicillin is most commonly taken orally. The liquid forms are helpful where the patient might find it difficult to take tablets or capsules.

An extended-release is available.[45] The intravenous form of amoxicillin is not sold in the United States.[46] When an intravenous aminopenicillin is required in the United States, ampicillin is typically used. When there is an adequate response to ampicillin, the course of antibiotic therapy may often be completed with oral amoxicillin.[47]

Research with mice indicated successful delivery using intraperitoneally injected amoxicillin-bearing microparticles.[48]


“Amoxicillin” is the International Nonproprietary Name (INN), British Approved Name (BAN), and United States Adopted Name (USAN), while “amoxycillin” is the Australian Approved Name (AAN).

Amoxicillin is one of the semisynthetic penicillins discovered by Beecham scientists. The patent for amoxicillin has expired, thus amoxicillin and co-amoxiclav preparations are marketed under various trade names across the world.[1]

Other animals[edit]

Amoxicillin is also sometimes used as an antibiotic for animals. The use of amoxicillin for animals intended for human consumption (chickenscattle, and swine for example) has been approved.[49]


  1. Jump up to:a b “International brand names for amoxicillin” Archived from the original on 29 May 2016. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
  2. ^ “Amoxicillin”
  3. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h i j k l “Amoxicillin”The American Society of Health-System PharmacistsArchived from the original on 5 September 2015. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  4. ^ “Amoxicillin Sodium for Injection”EMC. 10 February 2016. Archived from the original on 27 October 2016. Retrieved 26 October2016.
  5. ^ Gillies, M; Ranakusuma, A; Hoffmann, T; Thorning, S; McGuire, T; Glasziou, P; Del Mar, C (17 November 2014). “Common harms from amoxicillin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials for any indication”CMAJ : Canadian Medical Association Journal187 (1): E21–31. doi:10.1503/cmaj.140848PMC 4284189PMID 25404399.
  6. ^ Fischer, Janos; Ganellin, C. Robin (2006). Analogue-based Drug Discovery. John Wiley & Sons. p. 490. ISBN 9783527607495Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  7. ^ Roy, Jiben (2012). An introduction to pharmaceutical sciences production, chemistry, techniques and technology. Cambridge: Woodhead Pub. p. 239. ISBN 9781908818041Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  8. ^ World Health Organization (2019). World Health Organization model list of essential medicines: 21st list 2019. Geneva: World Health Organization. hdl:10665/325771. WHO/MVP/EMP/IAU/2019.06. License: CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO.
  9. ^ Kelly, Deirdre (2008). Diseases of the liver and biliary system in children (3 ed.). Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 217. ISBN 9781444300543Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  10. ^ “Amoxicillin”International Drug Price Indicator Guide. Retrieved 1 August 2015.
  11. ^ “The Top 300 of 2019” Retrieved 26 February 2019.
  12. Jump up to:a b c d e f g h “Amoxicillin” (PDF). Davis. 2017. Archived (PDF)from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved March 22, 2017.
  13. ^ Venekamp, Roderick P.; Sanders, Sharon L.; Glasziou, Paul P.; Del Mar, Chris B.; Rovers, Maroeska M. (2015-06-23). “Antibiotics for acute otitis media in children” (PDF)The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6): CD000219. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000219.pub4ISSN 1469-493XPMC 7043305PMID 26099233.
  14. ^ Thanaviratananich S, Laopaiboon M, Vatanasapt P (December 2013). “Once or twice daily versus three times daily amoxicillin with or without clavulanate for the treatment of acute otitis media”. Cochrane Database Syst Rev (12): CD004975. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004975.pub3PMID 24338106.
  15. ^ American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology. “Five Things Physicians and Patients Should Question” (PDF)Choosing Wisely: An Initiative of the ABIM FoundationAmerican Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and ImmunologyArchived (PDF) from the original on November 3, 2012. Retrieved August 14, 2012.
  16. ^ Ahovuo-Saloranta, A.; Rautakorpi, U. M.; Borisenko, O. V.; Liira, H.; Williams Jr, J. W.; Mäkelä, M. (2014). Ahovuo-Saloranta, Anneli (ed.). “Antibiotics for acute maxillary sinusitis”. The Cochrane Library (2): CD000243. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD000243.pub3PMID 24515610. (Retracted, seedoi:10.1002/14651858.cd000243.pub4. If this is an intentional citation to a retracted paper, please replace {{Retracted}} with{{Retracted|intentional=yes}}.)
  17. ^ Pneumonia – National Library of Medicine – PubMed Health. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence: Clinical Guidelines. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (UK). 2014. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  18. ^ Revised WHO Classification and Treatment of Pneumonia in Children at Health Facilities – NCBI Bookshelf. WHO Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee. World Health Organization. 2014. ISBN 9789241507813Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  19. ^ Chey WD, Leontiadis GI, Howden CW, Moss SF (February 2017). “ACG Clinical Guideline: Treatment of Helicobacter pylori Infection”. Am. J. Gastroenterol112 (2): 212–239. doi:10.1038/ajg.2016.563PMID 28071659.
  20. ^ Torbahn G, Hofmann H, Rücker G, Bischoff K, Freitag MH, Dersch R, Fingerle V, Motschall E, Meerpohl JJ, Schmucker C (November 2018). “Efficacy and Safety of Antibiotic Therapy in Early Cutaneous Lyme Borreliosis: A Network Meta-analysis”JAMA Dermatol154 (11): 1292–1303. doi:10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.3186PMC 6248135PMID 30285069.
  21. ^ “Adolescent Acne: Management”Archived from the original on 2010-12-22.
  22. ^ “Amoxicillin and Acne Vulgaris”. 2012-09-05. Archived from the original on 2012-07-21. Retrieved 2012-08-17.
  23. ^ Guideline: Managing Possible Serious Bacterial Infection in Young Infants When Referral Is Not Feasible – NCBI Bookshelf. WHO Guidelines Approved by the Guidelines Review Committee. World Health Organization. 2015. ISBN 9789241509268Archived from the original on 2017-09-08.
  24. ^ “CG64 Prophylaxis against infective endocarditis: Full guidance”(PDF)NICE. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 November 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
  25. ^ Thornhill, MH; Dayer, MJ; Forde, JM; Corey, GR; Chu, VH; Couper, DJ; Lockhart, PB (2011-05-03). “Impact of the NICE guideline recommending cessation of antibiotic prophylaxis for prevention of infective endocarditis: before and after study”BMJ (Clinical Research Ed.)342: d2392. doi:10.1136/bmj.d2392PMC 3086390PMID 21540258.
  26. ^ “Amoxicillin Susceptibility and Resistance Data” (PDF). Retrieved 20 July 2013.
  27. ^ “Amoxicillin spectrum of bacterial susceptibility and Resistance”(PDF). Retrieved 8 April 2012.
  28. ^ Cundiff j, Joe S.; Joe, S (2007). “Amoxicillin-clavulanic acid-induced hepatitis”. Am. J. Otolaryngol28 (1): 28–30. doi:10.1016/j.amjoto.2006.06.007PMID 17162128.
  29. ^ R. Baselt (2008). Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man(8th ed.). Foster City, CA: Biomedical Publications. pp. 81–83.
  30. ^ Gillies M, Ranakusuma A, Hoffmann T, Thorning S, McGuire T, Glasziou P, Del Mar C (January 2015). “Common harms from amoxicillin: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized placebo-controlled trials for any indication”CMAJ187 (1): E21–31. doi:10.1503/cmaj.140848PMC 4284189PMID 25404399.
  31. ^ “Role of delayed cellular hypersensitivity and adhesion molecules in amoxicillin-induced morbilliform rashes”. Archived from the original on 2011-12-29. Retrieved 2010-11-13.
  32. ^ Pichichero ME (April 2005). “A review of evidence supporting the American Academy of Pediatrics recommendation for prescribing cephalosporin antibiotics for penicillin-allergic patients”Pediatrics115 (4): 1048–57. doi:10.1542/peds.2004-1276PMID 15805383Archived from the original on 2008-12-18.
  33. ^ Schmitt, Barton D. (2005). Your child’s health: the parents’ one-stop reference guide to symptoms, emergencies, common illnesses, behavior problems, healthy development (2nd ed.). New York: Bantam Books. ISBN 978-0-553-38369-0.
  34. ^ Kagan, B (1977). “Ampicillin rash”Western Journal of Medicine126 (4): 333–335. PMC 1237570PMID 855325.
  35. ^ British National Formulary 57 March 2009
  36. ^ Arcangelo, Virginia Poole; Peterson, Andrew M.; Wilbur, Veronica; Reinhold, Jennifer A. (August 17, 2016). Pharmacotherapeutics for Advanced Practice: A Practical Approach. LWW. ISBN 978-1-496-31996-8.
  37. ^ Handsfield HH, Clark H, Wallace JF, Holmes KK, Turck M (February 1973). “Amoxicillin, a new penicillin antibiotic”Antimicrob. Agents Chemother3 (2): 262–5. doi:10.1128/AAC.3.2.262PMC 444397PMID 4208282.
  38. ^ Alcamo, I. Edward (2003), Microbes and Society: An Introduction to Microbiology, Jones & Bartlett Learning, p. 198, ISBN 9780763714307.
  39. ^ Sezer, Ali Demir, ed. (2016). Application of Nanotechnology in Drug DeliveryINTECH. p. 423. ISBN 9789535116288. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  40. ^ GB patent 978178, John Herbert Charles Nayler & Harry Smith, “Penicillins”, published 1964-12-16, assigned to Beecham Research Laboratories Ltd
  41. ^ GB patent 1241844, Anthony Alfred Walter Long & John Herber Charles Nayler, “Penicillins”, published 1971-08-04, assigned to Beecham Group LTD
  42. ^ Geddes, AM; et al. (Dec 2007). “Introduction: historical perspective and development of amoxicillin/clavulanate”. Int J Antimicrob Agents30(Suppl 2): S109–12. doi:10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2007.07.015PMID 17900874.
  43. Jump up to:a b Raviña, E (2014). The Evolution of Drug Discovery. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. p. 262. ISBN 9783527326693.
  44. ^ Bruggink, A (2001). Synthesis of β-lactam antibiotics. Springer. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-7923-7060-4.
  45. ^ “Drug Approval Package: Moxatag (amoxicillin extended-release) NDA #050813”.
  46. ^ Marek, Cindy L.; Timmons, Sherry R. (2018). Nowak, Arthur (ed.). Antimicrobials in Pediatric DentistrySaundersISBN 978-0323608268. Retrieved 2019-07-24.
  47. ^
  48. ^ Farazuddin, Mohammad; Chauhan, Arun; Khan, Raza M.M.; Owais, Mohammad (2011). “Amoxicillin-bearing microparticles: potential in the treatment of Listeria monocytogenes infection in Swiss albino mice”Bioscience Reports31 (4): 265–72. doi:10.1042/BSR20100027PMID 20687896.
  49. ^ Ramos, Fernando; Boison, Joe; Friedlander, Lynn G. “Amoxicillin”(PDF) Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Retrieved 8 November 2019.